Free movement system
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Free movement system

Sat 10 Feb, 2024


  • Recently, the Ministry of Home Affairs has recommended to ensure the internal security of the country and cancel the free movement regime to control the changes in demographics in the north eastern states adjoining India.

Key Points

  • In this series, the Government of India can cancel the Free Movement Regime (FMR) with Myanmar.
  • The Union Home Ministry has decided that the free movement regime between India and Myanmar will be abolished.

What is free movement regime?

  • Till 1826, many states of North East were under Myanmar, the then Burma.
  • In  1824, there was a war between the British and Burma and after the war, the Treaty of Yandabu took place in 1826.
  • The Treaty of Yandabu was signed by General Sir Archbald Campbell on behalf of the British and Maha Min Hla Kyaw HTIN by Maha Min Hla Kyaw HTIN on behalf of General Sir Archbald Campbell and Burma.
  • This ends the first Anglo-Burma War (1824–1826)
  • Under this treaty, the northeastern states came into existence and the border between India and Myanmar.
  • The border between India and Myanmar has been determined, but many tribes living in the North East and the tribes of Myanmar have ties till date.
  • Currently, India and Myanmar share 1,643 km long boundaries in Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh, of which only 10 km  fence has been installed in Manipur.

Free traffic facility

  • In  2018, the Government of India implemented the Free Movement Huic Agreement with Myanmar, under which the citizens of the two can come in the range of each other without a passport or visa to 16 kilometers.
  • Individuals living on the border require a one -year border pass to stay in the neighboring country for two weeks.

Reason vested behind cancellation of FMR

  • Increasing number of militants and intruders in the Indian border.
  • For example, Cookie National Organization (KNO) and Kangleepak Communist Party-Lamfel (KCP-Lamfel) in Manipur.
  • Thousands of Rohingya refugees flee to Myanmar and take refuge in India after the military coup in Myanmar.
  • Illegal drug smuggling and arms supply to the Myanmar border.
  • Discrimination on border areas and illegal extraction/exploitation of natural resources.
  • China's increasing influence in Myanmar and its possible impact on border security.



  • Capital: Naypyidaw
  • Currency: Myanmar Kyat
  • Official language: Burmese

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